What are Golf Club Heads Made Of

Golf club heads play a vital role in the performance of golf clubs, and the materials used to create them can significantly affect the overall playability and feel of each club. Over the years, technological advancements have led to a variety of materials being used to optimize golf club heads for specific purposes. In this article, we will discuss the common materials used in making golf club heads and how these materials contribute to the functionality and performance of the clubs.

Materials Used in Golf Club Heads

  1. Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is the most common material used in the production of golf club heads, particularly for irons and putters. This is due to its strength, durability, and affordability. Stainless steel is resistant to rust and corrosion, making it a long-lasting option for golfers. It is also a relatively heavy material, providing a solid feel to the club and assisting with control and stability during the swing.

  1. Titanium

Titanium is a popular choice for the construction of drivers and some fairway woods, as it is lightweight, strong, and durable. The light weight of titanium allows manufacturers to create larger club heads with thinner walls, which helps to maximize the sweet spot for greater forgiveness on off-center shots. Furthermore, the strength of titanium allows the club face to flex upon impact, resulting in a higher launch angle and increased ball speed for greater distance.

  1. Carbon Fiber (Composite Materials)

Carbon fiber, a composite material, is becoming more popular in the manufacturing of golf club heads, especially for drivers and woods. Carbon fiber is lighter than both stainless steel and titanium, allowing for weight to be redistributed within the club head for improved performance. The incorporation of carbon fiber in club heads can help increase the moment of inertia (MOI), which leads to greater forgiveness on off-center hits and overall stability during the swing.

  1. Zinc and Aluminum Alloys

Zinc and aluminum alloys are less commonly used in the production of golf club heads, but they can still be found in some entry-level or beginner sets. These materials are relatively inexpensive and lightweight but may lack the durability and performance characteristics of stainless steel, titanium, or carbon fiber. They are generally used for putters or cavity-back irons and can offer a decent option for golfers on a budget or those new to the game.

  1. Maraging Steel

Maraging steel is a specialized high-strength alloy that has been increasingly used in the construction of golf club heads, particularly in fairway woods and hybrid clubs. This type of steel undergoes a unique hardening process that results in a stronger and more resilient material compared to traditional stainless steel. The increased strength of maraging steel allows for the creation of ultra-thin club faces, which results in a higher COR (coefficient of restitution) and faster ball speeds off the face for enhanced distance and performance.

  1. Tungsten

Tungsten is a dense and heavy metal that is sometimes incorporated into golf club head designs, particularly for irons and some hybrids. It is not used as the primary material for the entire club head but rather added strategically to specific areas to improve the club’s performance characteristics. The high density of tungsten allows for precise weight distribution within the club head, lowering the center of gravity (CG) and increasing the MOI for enhanced forgiveness and launch conditions.

  1. Multi-Material Construction

In recent years, club manufacturers have started to utilize multi-material construction techniques to further optimize golf club head performance. By combining various materials, such as titanium, carbon fiber, stainless steel, and tungsten, club designers can strategically place weight and fine-tune the club head’s properties. This approach allows for the creation of clubs with specific performance characteristics tailored to individual golfers’ needs, such as improved launch angles, increased forgiveness, and enhanced ball speed.


Materials used in golf club heads

MaterialAdvantagesDisadvantagesCommonly Used InManufacturing Process
Stainless SteelDurable, affordableHeavierIrons, wedgesCasting, forging
TitaniumLightweight, strongExpensiveDrivers, fairway woodsCasting, forging
Carbon SteelSoft feel, preciseRust-prone, expensiveForged ironsForging
ZincLow cost, easy to moldLess durable, lower performanceLower-end clubsCasting
Carbon Fiber CompositeLightweight, customizableExpensive, complex productionHigh-end drivers, fairway woodsComposite molding

Golf club head styles

StylePurposeMaterial OptionsTypical Loft RangeClub Types
BladePrecision, workabilityCarbon steel, stainless steel18-64 degreesIrons, wedges
Cavity BackForgiveness, distanceStainless steel, carbon steel12-64 degreesIrons, wedges
Muscle BackFeel, controlCarbon steel, stainless steel18-64 degreesIrons, wedges
Perimeter WeightedForgiveness, stabilityStainless steel, titanium9-64 degreesDrivers, irons, wedges
Multi-materialCustomizable, performanceTitanium, carbon fiber composite9-30 degreesDrivers, fairway woods

Golf club head coatings

CoatingBenefitsCommon MaterialsApplication MethodsUsed With
ChromeCorrosion resistance, aestheticsStainless steel, carbon steelElectroplatingIrons, wedges
PVDWear resistance, aestheticsStainless steel, carbon steel, titaniumPhysical vapor depositionIrons, wedges, drivers
Black OxideRust resistance, glare reductionCarbon steelChemical treatmentForged irons
PaintAesthetics, brandingAll materialsSpray, brush, dipAll club types
UncoatedRaw feel, aestheticsCarbon steelNoneForged irons

 Golf club head face technologies

TechnologyBenefitsMaterialsClub TypesExamples
GroovesSpin control, debris removalAll materialsIrons, wedgesV-grooves, U-grooves
Face InsertsVibration dampening, feelStainless steel, titanium, carbon fiber compositeDrivers, fairway woods, hybridsMetalwood Face Inserts
Variable Face ThicknessForgiveness, ball speedStainless steel, titanium, carbon fiber compositeDrivers, fairway woods, hybridsCallaway Jailbreak, TaylorMade Twist Face
Face MillingConsistent spin, feelCarbon steel, stainless steelIrons, wedgesCNC milling
Bulge and RollForgiveness, gear effectTitanium, carbon fiber compositeDrivers, fairway woodsCurved face drivers

Golf club head weighting systems

Weighting SystemPurposeMaterialsClub TypesExamples
Perimeter WeightingForgiveness, stabilityStainless steel, titaniumIrons, wedges, driversPing G series, Callaway Big Bertha
Muscle BackControl, workabilityCarbon steel, stainless steelIrons, wedgesMizuno MP series



The materials used in the construction of golf club heads play a significant role in determining the performance, feel, and durability of the clubs. Stainless steel, titanium, carbon fiber, and zinc or aluminum alloys are commonly used, each offering unique benefits and characteristics. Golfers should carefully consider the material composition of the club heads in their set to ensure they select clubs that best suit their skill level, preferences, and style of play.


  • Ray Barnes

    Ray Barnes, our Senior Staff Writer and a Golf Analyst with a PhD in Sports Analytics, is a beacon of insight in the golfing world. With a deep understanding of the sport's nuances, statistical analysis, and a talent for demystifying complexities, he provides in-depth analysis and captivating narratives that engage golf enthusiasts worldwide.

Leave a Comment